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Informing Digital Futures: Strategies for Citizen Engagement

Springer-Verlag New York, LLC

Informing Digital Futures: Strategies for Citizen Engagement Overview

In the present digital revolution we often seem trapped in a Kafkaesque world of technological advances, some desired, some disliked or even feared, which we cannot influence but must accept. This book discusses the urgent need to redress this situation. The authors argue that technologies succeed or fail according to their relevance and value to people, who need to be actively engaged in order to create shared visions and influence their implementation.

Informing Digital Futures: Strategies for Citizen Engagement Table Of Content

Dedication; Contents; Preface;Acknowledgements. 1 Introduction.1.1 Scene Setting. 1.2 A Desirable Digital Future? 1.3 Basic Premises 1.4 Structure and Content of this Book. References. 2 Designing Digital Futures. 2.1 Living in a Digital World. 2.2 Fulfilling the Promise.2.2.1 Government Services.2.2.2 Digital Television.2.2.3 Local e-Government.2.2.4 Mobile Phones.2.3 Vision versus Reality.2.4 How Did We Get Here? 2.5 The influence of Design Methods for ICT.2.6 Did Anybody Ever Ask Us? 2.7 Conclusions. References.3 The Case for Engagement.3.1 Drivers for Engagement. 3.1.1 "e-everything".3.1.2 Stemming the Digital Divide.3.1.3 Improving Social Inclusion 3.1.4 Promoting Democracy.3.2 The Benefits of Citizen Engagement. 3.2.1 Better Understanding of Needs and Requirements.3.2.2 Learning, Knowledge Sharing and Innovation.3.2.3 Faster Technology Diffusion.3.2.4 Enhanced Citizenship.3.2.5 Sustainability.3.3 Conclusions.References.4 Citizen Engagement in Practice.4.1 Characteristics of Citizen Engagement Initiatives.4.2 A Framework for Analysis of Citizen Engagement Initiatives.4.3 Citizen Engagement in policy making.4.3.1 Netmums—UK 54. 4.3.2 Macatawa Area Coordinating Council—USA.4.3.3 Citizen Involvement in Future Drug Research and Development (R and D)—Denmark.4.3.4 The National Forum on Health—Canada.4.3.5 ‘America Speaks’—USA.4.3.6 Madrid Participa—Spain.4.3.7 Chicago Neighbourhood Planning - USA.4.4 Citizen engagement in aspects of ICT design.4.4.1 Bundestag Website Design—Germany.4.4.2 K-Net (The Kuhkenah Network)—Canada.4.4.3 Reflect ICTs Project—Pilots in Uganda and India.4.4.4 Nepal Wireless.4.4.5 Jhai Foundation—Laos.4.5 Conclusions.References.5 Giving a Voice to the ‘Hard to Hear’. 5.1 Why are some Citizens ‘Hard to Hear’?5.2 Citizens at risk from social exclusion.5.3 Case studies.5.3.1 Older people aged over 60—UK.5.3.2 The Surrey 50+ website—UK.5.3.3 ‘Logged Off’—political disaffection amongst younger people—UK.5.3.4 Online surgeries for young people—UK.5.3.5 LOCOMOTION—Disabled and elderly citizens—UK/Germany.5.3.6 WomenSpeak—Women Suffering Domestic Violence—UK.5.3.7 Jamie’s Big Voice—the homeless—UK.5.4 Conclusions References.6 Modelling Citizen Engagement. 6.1 Dimensions of Citizen Engagement 6.1.1 Institution-led engagement.6.1.2 Citizen-led engagement.6.1.3 Top-down or bottom up (grass-roots) initiatives.6.1.4 Scale of Citizen Engagement.6.1.5 Significance of Impact.6.1.6 Opportunity for citizen influence.6.2 Modelling citizen engagement.6.2.1 Citizen input.6.2.2 Transformations.6.2.3 Outputs and Outcomes: components of desirable futures.6.3 Conclusions.References.7 Citizen Engagement in ICT Design: the Challenge. 7.1 Barriers to citizen engagement in ICT development.7.1.1 Technical Focus of ICT Developments.7.1.2 Limited Practice of Participatory Design.7.1.3 Role Conflicts and Role Boundaries.7.1.4 Knowledge Silos.7.1.5 Lack of Appropriate Skills.7.1.6 High Perceived Costs.7.2 Changing the focus of ICT development.7.2.1 Parameters of the Shift.7.2.2 A Sociotechnical approach to design.7.2.3 Information Ecologies.7.2.4 A Participatory approach to Design.7.2.5 Inclusive Design.7.3 Facilitating the transition: a change management approach.7.3.1 Dissatisfaction with the status quo.7.3.2 A shared vision.7.3.3 Knowledge about practical steps.7.3.4 Costs (economic and psychological).7.4 Conclusions.References.8 Strategies for Citizen Engagement: (i) shifting the focus of ICT design practice. 8.1 Introducing the strategies.8.2 Institutionalising the shift in organizations. 8.2.1 Action Plan for institutionalising citizen participation/engagement.8.2.2 Identifying, informing and convincing key people.8.2.3 Integrating citizen engagement with ICT design methods. 8.2.4 Integrating citizen engagement with performance appraisal and monitoring.8.2.5 Providing resources for citizen engagement.8.3 Capacity building.8.4 Changing organizational culture.8.4.1 Key learning points: the Know Why, Know What and Know How of Citizen Engagement.8.5 Sharing the knowledge.8.6 Conclusions.References.9 Strategies for Citizen Engagement (ii)—Tools and Techniques. 9.1 Methodologies or toolkits? 9.2 Resources to support citizen engagement.9.3 Preparing the ground. 9.3.1 Identifying stakeholders: who needs to be engaged? 9.3.2 Revealing Stakeholder Diversity. 9.3.3 Stakeholder Readiness to Engage.9.3.4 Motivation for Citizens to engage.9.4 Supporting citizen engagement in sociotechnical decision making.9.5 Communication and knowledge sharing.9.5.1 Communication techniques and channels. 9.5.2 Knowledge sharing. 9.6 Envisioning.9.6.1 Visual representations.9.6.2 Experiential approaches.9.7 Consensus Building.9.7.1 The Search Conference.9.7.2 Citizens’ Juries.9.8 Creativity and Problem Solving.9.8.1 Brainstorming.9.8.2 Workshops and Games.9.9 Requirements Surfacing.9.9.1 Challenging stereotypes.9.9.2 Surfacing assumptions and attitudes.9.10 Developing outputs to inform design.9.11 Conclusions.References.10 Achieving a Culture of Participation and Engagement. 10.1 Drivers for Action. 10.2 Rewards for chainging the focus of ICT design.10.2.1 Enriched Knowledge Base.10.2.2 Improved Systems and Sevices.10.2.3 Faster Adoption and more Widespread Use.10.3 Leading the Way.10.3.1 Role of Influential Leaders.10.3.2 Publicising the value of citizen participation/engagement.10.3.3 Role of the IT Profession.10.3.4 Starting the Dialogue.10.4 Enabling the Transition.10.4.1 Insitutionalising the Changes.10.4.2 Giving Citizens a Voice.10.4.3 Enabling Role of Technology.10.4.4 Investing in the Transition.10.5 Role of Stakeholders.10.5.1 ICT Designers.10.5.2 ICT Manufacturers.10.5.3 Government.10.5.4 Creating Capacity for engagement/participation.10.6 Scaling the Process.10.7 Conclusions.References focus of ICT design practice. 145

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